Blog RS Santa Elisabeth Medan

Trauma Kapitis (Cedera Kepala)

Trauma Kapitis (Cedera Kepala)

TRAUMA KAPITIS (CEDERA KEPALA)

 

PENGERTIAN

Trauma kapitis adalah trauma mekanik langsung terhadap kepala baik secara langsung ataupun tidak langsung yang menyebabkan gangguan fungsi neurologis yaitu gangguan fungsi fisik, kognitif, fungsi psikososial baik temporer maupun permanen.

 

ANAMNESIS

  • Trauma kapitis dengan/ tanpa gangguan kesadaran atau lucid interval
  • Perdarahan/ otorrhea/ rhinorrhea
  • Amnesia traumatika (retrograde/ anterograd)

 

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK

  • Skala Koma Glasgow (SKG) merupakan penilaian neurologis yang cepat pada trauma kapitis yang akut
  • Pemeriksaan tanda – tanda trauma luar, memar atau perdarahan di kepala dan scalp dan darah di liang telinga atau di dekat membran timpani dapat sebagai petunjuk kerusakan otak yang terselubung. Juga perlu diperhatikan cedera pada cervical dan sistemik lainnya.
  • Pemeriksaan neurologis lainnya
    • Fungsi batang otak: besar dan reaksi pupil, respon okulosefalik (Doll’s eye phenomenon) dan respon okulovestibular/ okuloauditorik.
    • Pola pernafasan: Cheyne Stokes, Central neurogenic hyperventilation, Apneustic breathing atau Ataxic breathing
    • Pemeriksaan fungsi motorik: kekuatan otot, reflex tendon dan tonus otot
    • Pemeriksaan funduskopi

 

EDUKASI

Memberikan penjelasan kepada pasien dan keluarga meliputi pengertian, keadaan pasien (gawat darurat atau tidak), langkah-langkah pengobatan (jika memerlukan operasi) dan prognosis pasien.

 

 

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